Thursday, October 10, 2019
The expectancy theory by Victor Bloom is based on the believe that organizational employees act in a certain way based on the strength of an outcome and how attractive the outcome is to the individual. The theory contains three main relationships and when all three are maintained the desired behavior from the employee will be achieved. These three relationships are effort-performance (Expectant probability), performance-reward (Instrumentality probability) and rewards-personal goals (Valence).In the effort-performance relationship or expectancy the employee must believe that if they perform in a certain manner that they will indeed increase their performance and thus make goals obtainable. In order for the employee to actually believe that increase effort will lead to increase performance they must believe that the process is valid, that they have the tools and resources to achieve the goal and that the goal is meaningful. The goal canÃ¢â¬â¢t be without merit based on their knowled ge of the job and their past experiences.The performance-reward relationship or instrumentality hinges of the belief that if the employee does work harder and does meet the performance goal that they will receive a reward or a greater reward compared to others. The employee again needs to have trust in the reward system and the people who manage the processes and reward systems. The reward process should be transparent and fair. The rewards-personal relationship or valence is the value that the employee sees in obtaining the goals. This will be variable because different things motivate people.Paid time off motivate some, bonuses and or pay raises motivate others. Some employees simply are satisfied with being recognized and others seek promotion. The key element to the rewards-personal relationship is not that the employee is satisfied but the satisfactions meet their expectant level of satisfaction. (Expectancy Theory of Motivation, 2012) In the taskÃ¢â¬â¢s given scenario there is plenty of evidence that the employees have little confidence in the thought of working hard and producing more has any positive affect on them. This is an excellent scenario to apply the expectancy theory.Based on the interviews of supervisor AÃ¢â¬â¢s employee by supervisor BÃ¢â¬â¢s supervisor there is lack of trust that work is rewarded at all, fairly, and the current reward system is not worth the trouble. The statement that the bonuses are not enough to make a difference in their pay after deductions and the statements that you have to be way underperforming to have a negative effect on your pay and over performance has no positive effect on pay confirm this. These opinions are obviously based on past experience of working with the audio product company.Supervisor A obviously must have the same attitudes as the people he supervises being that his group is underperforming and supervisor B is the person concerned and asking the questions on how to better the situation. There is also a statement that some employees believed they did not have the dexterity to perform the new process undermining the confidence in the new program. The company needs to do several things utilizing the expectancy theory. First there needs to be confidence in the new program that it is meaningful and the goals are obtainable.First for the employees with the issue of dexterity, there needs to be some education and assistance provided to those employees to evaluate what they can do to make it easier to perform the job. Maybe additional tools or resources are necessary. This education and assistance could even be provided by the employees that are doing well and excelling in the new process. The company should set common individual and team goals. The individual goals would motivate the employees and the team goals should motivate the supervisors. These goals need to be obtainable and enough of a challenge that the employee feels accomplishment when they meet them.There also shou ld be regular feedback about their performance. This addresses the expectancy part of the theory that if they work harder that it will increase their performance. Then to gain interest in the rewards, there needs to be an overhaul of the reward system itself. There needs to be variety in the rewards. A poll could be taken of the employees and ask them what would be fair rewards for met goals. The employer could take the majority opinion of the poll and offer the result as a reward or offer options of rewards either by individuals or by group.The rewards must be of value to the employee that is the bottom line. The company needs to have transparency in the new goal and reward program. That will make sure there is confidence and fairness in the reward program. Employees must see that the achievers are being rewarded while the underachievers are not. This tangible difference must be known and visible to reinforce that things are now different and effort is awarded. This aspect addresse s the instrumentality relationship aspect of the expectancy theory.To accommodate those employees that are motivated by recognition, individual rewards that include company wide recognition should be established in addition to the monetary or benefit rewards. Team recognition awards could also be established. This would create a little friendly competition while providing openly displayed performance numbers which in turn provides positive feedback for increased performance. By making sure that the reward system has value and makes the employee desire to make the goal and want the reward addresses the valence relationship of the theory.By giving the employees the skills and tools necessary to obtain goals and to have the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence that there is an open and fair reward mechanism is vital for successful motivation of the workforce. It is of utmost importance that the employee feels that their increased effort will increase performance and the increased performance w ill result in meaningful expected rewards for them. Bibliography Expectancy Theory of Motivation. (2012, 11 4). Retrieved from Management Study Guide: http://www. managementstudyguide. com/expectancy-theory-motivation. htm Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory proposes that a person will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.  In essence, the motivation of the behavior selection is determined by the desirability of the outcome. However, at the core of the theory is the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational elements. This is done before making the ultimate choice.The outcome is not the sole determining factor in making the decision of how to behave.  Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. In the study of organizational behavior, expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management. Ã¢â¬Å"This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to per formance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients. Ã¢â¬  Victor H.Vroom (1964) defines motivation as a process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntary activities, a process controlled by the individual. The individual makes choices based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior are going to match up with or eventually lead to the desired results. Motivation is a product of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s expectancy that a certain effort will lead to the intended performance, the instrumentality of this performance to achieving a certain result, and the desirability of this result for the individual, known as valence.  Contents hide] 1 Author 2 Key elements 2. 1 Expectancy: Effort > Performance (E>P) 2. 2 Instrumentality: Performance > Outcome (P>O) 2. 3 Valence- V(R) 3 Current Research 3. 1 Management 3. 2 Computer Users 3. 3 Models of Teacher Expectancy Effects 4 Criticisms 5 Related The ories 6 Notes 7 Further reading  Author In 1964, Vroom developed the Expectancy theory through his study of the motivations behind decision making. His theory is relevant to the study of management. Currently, Vroom is a John G. Searle Professor of Organization and Management at the Yale University School of Management. 4]  Key elements The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I). The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy). 5] Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence 1. Expectancy: Effort > Perform ance (E>P) 2. Instrumentality: Performance > Outcome (P>O) 3. Valence- V(R)  Expectancy: Effort > Performance (E>P) Expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E) will result in attainment of desired performance (P) goals. Usually based on an individual's past experience, self-confidence (self efficacy), and the perceived difficulty of the performance standard or goal.Factors associated with the individual's Expectancy perception are self efficacy, goal difficulty, and control. Self efficacy is the personÃ¢â¬â¢s belief about their ability to successfully perform a particular behavior. Goal difficulty happens when goals are set too high or performance expectations that are made too difficult are most likely to lead to low expectancy perceptions. Control is one's perceived control over performance. In order for expectancy to be high, individuals must believe that they have some degree of control over the expected outcome. edit] Instrumentality: Performance > Outcome (P>O) Inst rumentality is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met. This reward may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the reward is the same for all performances given. Factors associated with the individual's instrumentality for outcomes are trust, control and policies. If individuals trust their superiors, they are more likely to believe their leaders promises.When there is a lack of trust in leadership, people often attempt to control the reward system. When individuals believe they have some kind of control over how, when, and why rewards are distributed, Instrumentality tends to increase. Formalized written policies impact the individuals' instrumentality perceptions. Instrumentality is increased when formalized policies associates rewards to performance.  Valence- V(R) Valence: the value the individual places on the rewards based on their needs, goals, val ues and Sources of Motivation.Factors associated with the individual's valence for outcomes are values, needs, goals, preferences and Sources of Motivation Strength of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s preference for a particular outcome. The valence refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. -1 >0> +1 -1= avoiding the outcome 0= indifferent to the outcome +1=welcomes the outcome In order for the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. Expectancy Theory of motivation can help managers understand how individuals make decisions regarding various behavioral alternatives.The model below shows the direction of motivation, when behavior is energized: Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence When deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest amount of motivational force (MF). Expectancy and instrumentality are attitudes (cognitions) that represent an individual's perce ption of the likelihood that effort will lead to performance that will lead to the desired outcomes. These perceptions represent the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s subjective reality, and may or may not bear close resemblance to actual probabilities.These perceptions are tempered by the individual's experiences (learning theory), observations of others (social learning theory), and self-perceptions. Valence is rooted in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s value system. One example of how this theory can be applied is related to evaluating an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s job performance. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s performance is a function of the multiplicative relationship between oneÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation and ability [P=f (M*A)]  Motivation can be expressed as [M=f (V*E)], or as a function of valence times expectancy.In laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, this is how much someone is invested in something along with how probable or achievable the individual believes the goal is.  Current Research  Management Victor VroomÃ¢â¬â ¢s expectancy theory is one such management theory focused on motivation. According to Holdford and Lovelace-Elmore (2001, p. 8), Vroom asserts, Ã¢â¬Å"intensity of work effort depends on the perception that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s effort will result in a desired outcomeÃ¢â¬ . Vroom suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"for a person to be motivated, effort, performance and motivation must be linkedÃ¢â¬ (Droar, 2006, p. 2).Three factors direct the intensity of effort put forth by an individual, according to Vroom; expectancy, instrumentality, and preferences (Holdford and Lovelace-Elmore, 2001). In order to enhance the performance-outcome tie, managers should use systems that tie rewards very closely to performance. Managers also need to ensure that the rewards provided are deserved and wanted by the recipients.  In order to improve the effort-performance tie, managers should engage in training to improve their capabilities and improve their belief that added effort will in fact lead to better performance. 8] Ã¢â¬â Emphasizes self-interest in the alignment of rewards with employee's wants. Ã¢â¬â Emphasizes the connections among expected behaviors, rewards and organizational goals Expectancy Theory, though well known in work motivation literature, is not as familiar to scholars or practitioners outside that field.  Computer Users Lori Baker-Eveleth and Robert Stone, University of Idaho, conducted an empirical study on 154 faculty membersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavioral intentions/responses to use of new software.The antecedents with previous computer experience ease of the system, and administrator support for they are linked to behavioral intentions to use the software through self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy impacts a personÃ¢â¬â¢s effect and behavior separately. Self-efficacy is the belief a person has that they possess the skills and abilities to successfully accomplish something. Outcome expectancy is the belief a person has when they accomplish the task, a desired outcome is attained.Self-efficacy has a direct impact on outcome expectancy and has a larger effect than outcome expectancy.  Employees will accept technology if they believe the technology is a benefit to them. If an employee is mandated to use the technology, the employees will use it but may feel it is not useful. On the other hand, when an employee is not mandated, the employee may be influenced by other factors that it should be used. The self-efficacy theory can be applied to predicting and perceiving an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s belief for computer use (Bandura, 1986; Bates & Khasawneh, 2007).This theory associates an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive state affective behavioral outcomes (Staples, Hulland, & Higgins, 1998). Motivation, performance, and feelings of failure are examples of self-efficacy theory expectations. The following constructs of the self-efficacy theory that impact attitudes and intentions to perform: past experience or mas tery with the task, vicarious experience performing the task, emotional or physiological arousal regarding the task, and social persuasion to perform the task. edit] Models of Teacher Expectancy Effects Jere Brophy and Thomas Good (1970, 1974) provided a comprehensive model of how teacher expectations could influence children's achievement. Their model posits that teachers' expectations indirectly affect children's achievement: Ã¢â¬Å"teacher expectations could also affect student outcomes indirectly by leading to differential teacher treatment of students that would condition student attitudes, expectations, and behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Brophy, 1983, p. 639). The model includes the following sequence.Teachers form differential expectations for students early in the school year. Based on these expectations, they behave differently toward different students, and as a result of these behaviors the students begin to understand what the teacher expects from them. If students accept the teachers ' expectations and behavior toward them then they will be more likely to act in ways that confirm the teacher's initial expectations. This process will ultimately affect student achievement so that teachers' initial expectancies are confirmed. In discussing work related to this model, Brophy (1983) made several important observations about teacher expectation effects. First and foremost, he argued that most of the beliefs teachers hold about student are accurate, and so their expectations usually reflect students' actual performance levels. As a result, Brophy contended that selffulfilling prophecy effects have relatively weak effects on student achievement, changing achievement 5% to 10%, although he did note that such effects usually are negative expectation effects rather than positive effects.Second, he pointed out that various situational and individual difference factors influence the extent to which teacher expectations will act as self-fulfilling prophecies. For instance , Brophy stated that expectancy effects may be larger in the early elementary grades, because teachers have more one-on-one interactions with students then, as they attempt to socialize children into the student role. In the upper elementary grades more whole-class teaching methods are used, which may minimize expectation effects.Some evidence supports this claim; expectancy effects in Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) study were strongest during the earlier grades. Raudenbush's (1984) meta-analysis of findings from different teacher expectancy studies in which expectancies were induced by giving teachers artificial information about children's intelligence showed that expectancy effects were stronger in Grades 1 and 2 than in Grades 3 through Grade 6, especially when the information was given to teachers during the first few weeks of school.These findings are particularly relevant because they show a form of the expectancy theory and how teachers have certain expectations of students and how they treat the students differently because of those expectations.   Criticisms Some of the critics of the expectancy model were Graen (1969) Lawler (1971), Lawler and Porter (1967), and Porter and Lawler (1968).  Their criticisms of the theory were based upon the expectancy model being too simplistic in nature; these critics started making adjustments to VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s model.Edward Lawler claims that the simplicity of expectancy theory is deceptive because it assumes that if an employer makes a reward, such as a financial bonus or promotion, enticing enough, employees will increase their productivity to obtain the reward.  However, this only works if the employees believe the reward is beneficial to their immediate needs. For example, a $2 increase in salary may not be desirable to an employee if the increase pushes her into a tax bracket in which she believes her net pay is actually reduced, which is actually impossible in the United States with marginal tax brackets.Similarly, a promotion that provides higher status but requires longer hours may be a deterrent to an employee who values evening and weekend time with his children. In addition to that, if anyone in the armed forces or security agencies is promoted, there is a must condition for such promotions, that they he/she will be transferred to other locations. In such cases, if the new place is far from their permanent residence, where their family is residing, they will not be motivated by such promotions, and the results will be other way round.Because, the outcome, which this reward (promotion) will yield, may not be valued by those who are receiving it. LawlerÃ¢â¬â¢s new proposal for expectancy theory is not against VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. Lawler argues that since there have been a variety of developments of expectancy theory since its creation in 1964; the expectancy model needs to be updated. LawlerÃ¢â¬â¢s new model is based on four claims.  First, whenever there are a number of outcomes, individuals will usually have a preference among those outcomes.Two, there is a belief on the part of that individual that their action(s) will achieve the outcome they desire. Three, any desired outcome was generated by the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Finally, the actions generated by the individual were generated by the preferred outcome and expectation of the individual. Instead of just looking at expectancy and instrumentality, W. F. Maloney and J. M. McFillen  found that expectancy theory could explain the motivation of those individuals who were employed by the construction industry. For nstance, they used worker expectancy and worker instrumentality. Worker expectancy is when supervisors create an equal match between the worker and their job. Worker instrumentality is when an employee knows that any increase in their performance leads to achieving their goal. In a chapter entitled Ã¢â¬Å"On the Origins of Expectancy TheoryÃ¢â¬ published in G reat Minds in Management by Ken G. Smith and Michael A. Hitt, Vroom himself agreed with some of these criticisms and stated that he felt that the theory should be expanded to include research conducted since the original publication of his book.